The Constitution of the Caliphate State, Article 159: The State supervises agricultural affairs and its produce in accordance with the needs of the agricultural policy which is to achieve the potential of the land to its greatest level of production.


Its evidence is the words of the Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم :

«الإِمَامُ رَاعٍ وَهُوَ وَمَسْؤُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ»

The Imam is a guardian and he is responsible for his subjects” (reported by Al-Bukhari from ‘Abd Allah b. Umar), and supervising the general agricultural affairs is part of managing the affairs, which is why it is part of the obligation of management upon the Imam. However, the State does not undertake the agricultural affairs directly, because the Messenger  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم left it to the Muslims; he said in the narration regarding the pollination of the trees:

«أَنْتُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِأُمُورِ دُنْيَاكُمْ»

You have better knowledge (of a technical skill) in the affairs of the world.(reported by Muslim from Aisha(ra) and Anas. Ibn Hazm reported it in Al-Ihkam with his own chain and authenticated to Aisha(ra) and Anas that the Prophet (saw) said:

«أَنْتُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِأُمُورِ دُنْيَاكُمْ»

You have better knowledge (of a technical skill) in the affairs of the world”.

In another report from Anas:

«أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم مَرَّ بِقَوْمٍ يُلَقِّحُونَ، فَقَالَ: لَوْ لَمْ تَفْعَلُوا لَصَلُحَ. قَالَ: فَخَرَجَ شِيصًا، فَمَرَّ بِهِمْ فَقَالَ: مَا لِنَخْلِكُمْ؟ قَالُوا: قُلْتَ كَذَا وَكَذَا، قَالَ: أَنْتُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِأَمْرِ دُنْيَاكُمْ»

The Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم happened to pass by the people who had been busy in grafting the trees. Thereupon he said: If you were not to do it, it might be good for you. (So they abandoned this practice) and there was a decline in the yield. He (the Holy Prophet) happened to pass by them (and said): What has gone wrong with your trees? They said: You said so and so. Thereupon he said: You have better knowledge (of a technical skill) in the affairs of the world. And in the report with Ahmad from Anas, the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«إِذَا كَانَ شَيْءٌ مِنْ أَمْرِ دُنْيَاكُمْ فَأَنْتُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ، فَإِذَا كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ دِينِكُمْ فَإِلَيَّ»

If it is something from your worldly affairs, then you are more knowledgeable about it, and if it is from the issues of the Deen, then come to me”. This indicates that the State does not directly supervise the agriculture, nor undertake it, but rather undertakes general supervision by organising what is permitted according to the various styles which are selected in order to increase and strengthen the agriculture, facilitating it to ease any issues, as well as planning an agricultural policy which would lead to raising the production levels.